Antimicrobials are not indicated for uncomplicated gastroenteritis with non-typhoidal Salmonella as treatment does not improve symptoms but can prolong the presence of organism in the stool.
Treatment may be indicated for patients who are under three months of age, immunosuppressed, have chronic gastrointestinal disease or a hemoglobinopathy. If treatment is needed ceftriaxone followed by oral azithromycin can be used. Ampicllin and TMP/SMX are options for susceptible strains.
Exposure can be through contaminated foods or exposures to animals. Many animals including reptiles, poultry, rodents and other mammals including hedgehogs and guinea pigs can carry the bacteria.
Shane AL, Mody RK, Crump JA, Tarr PI, Steiner TS, Kotloff K, Langley JM, Wanke C, Warren CA, Cheng AC, Cantey J, Pickering LK. 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Infectious Diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Nov 29;65(12):e45-e80. doi:10.1093/cid/cix669. PubMed PMID: 29053792; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5850553
American Academy of Pediatrics. Salmonella Infections. In: Kimberlin DW, Brady MT, Jackson MA, Long SS, eds. Red Book: 2018 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. American Academy of Pediatrics; 2018;