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Escherichia coli is by far the most common cause of urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis in children.

Other organisms including Enterobacter, Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterococcus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus can be seen. Empiric IV treatment is primarily directed at gram negative infections commonly with ceftriaxone or gentamicin.


Bradly JS (ed.) (2018) Nelson's Pediatric Antimicrobial Therapy 24th edition. Itasca, IL:American Academy of Pediatrics

Raszka WV Jr, Khan O. Pyelonephritis. Pediatr Rev. 2005 Oct;26(10):364-70.Review. PubMed PMID: 16199590